Dupnitsa is a town in western Bulgaria. It is an administrative center of Dupnitsa municipality and second major town in Kyustendil Region.
It is located at the foot of the Rila mountain, at the junction of the roads from Sofia to Thessaloniki and Plovdiv to Skopje. Settlements in the municipality are located in Dupnishkata valley formed by the western slopes of the Rila Mountain and the southern slopes of Verila mountain. The valley is open to the easte and south from the valley of Jerman river.
The average altitude is 500 m /ranges between 400-700 m/.
The population is about 37,800 people /according to 2013/.
The town has been existing since Antiquity. The names Tobinitsa, Doupla and Dubnitsa were originally mentioned, the last one surviving until the Liberation of Bulgaria, when the official name was changed to Dupnitsa. In 1948 the town was renamed to Stanke Dimitrov, for a short period in 1949 was called Marek, but the name was once again changed to Stanke Dimitrov in 1950. After the democratic changes, the old name Dupnitsa was adopted.
Traces of the Thracian culture (a mound necropolis), an antique settlement and a Roman tomb were discovered in and around the town of Doupnitsa. As a result of archaeological research in a place called Koulata (The Tower) - a hill in the north-east part of the town, from1993 to 1995, were uncovered the foundations of a fortress which existed in c. 4-5 AD. A tower for defence was erected in the middle of the hill after which the place was named.
The beginning of the town's industrialization was laid in the sixties and seventies of c. 19, when three factories of the manufacture type started working - a freeze-weaving, a woodworking and a tobacco factory. The town started developing as one of the big producing-producing centres. The tobacco industry and the tobacco trade were the chief source of livelihood for a large part of the population up to the thirties of c. 20. The craft-guilds were rich and gave financial support to the building of churches, the maintenance of schools, etc. During the first half of c. 19 there existed in the town four churches, the Rila-Monastery Cloister and the cloisters of the Hilendar and Zograf monasteries, and by the end of the century there were also eight schools, one of which was for girls. Along with developing their cultural and educational work the inhabitants of Doupnitsa took part in the struggle for national liberation, they joined the Volunteer Forces in the Russian-Turkish War and the subdivisions for the liberation of the town and the region under the command of Major Iv. P. Orlinski. The socio-political life of the liberated Doupnitsa in the period from 1878 to 1912 was dominated by the idea of obtaining national unity, of supporting the Bulgarians who had remained under the power of the Sultan in Macedonia. Charities were founded. The town sheltered thousands of refugees and became one of the centres for organization and preparation of armed subdivisions for the liberation of Macedonia. The cultural uplift of Bulgaria during that period also left its mark on Doupnitsa. The traditions that were created during the National Revival have been preserved to this day.
The settlements of the Doupnitsa municipality are situated in the Doupnitsa Hollow, formed by the west slopes of the Rila mountain and the south slopes of the Verila mountain. The hollow is open eastwards and southwards of the valley of the Jerman river. The enclosing slopes have a typical mountain relief cut through by numerous rivers and gullies which form torrential cones. The altitude varies from 400 to 700 meters above sea level. The town of Doupnitsa is situated upon three ledges of the drainage valley of the Jerman river pointed southwards-eastwards, and the average altitude is 500 meters above sea level. The two steep hills in the north-east part of the town - Koulata and Drenski Rid - are a natural barrier along the main road Sofia - Salonika and its branch for the town of Kustendil.
The Doupnitsa Hollow is located in the Temperately-Continental climatic area with a certain Mediterranean influence, which permeates through the valleys of the Strouma river and the Jerman river. This softens the climatic conditions of the region and changes the climate in the direction of the Transitional Continental.
The winter is soft, the summer is warm. The average annual temperature is 10.6оС, and the average annual amplitude is 11.6С. The absolute minimal temperatures reach 30С, and the absolute minimal temperatures reach 39.3С.
The Transitional-Continental nature of the climate is emphasized by the distribution of the precipitation during the year and by seasons.The average annual quantity of precipitation is 656 mm. The quantity of rainfall is the largest in spring - 181 mm, and is the smallest in winter - 134 mm - as snowfall. As a result of the Mediterranean influence, the snow-cover lasts for a short time -up to 22 days in the period from the end of December to the end of February. The relative air humidity is the highest in December - 81%, and the lowest in June - 57%.
The biggest river which flows through the Doupnitsa Hollow is Strouma. Its right tributary is the swift-flowing mountain river Jerman (the Jerman debouches at the town of Boboshevo), which springs from The Seven Lakes of Rila. Its catchment basin covers about 396 square meters.
Other right tributaries of the Jerman are the rivers Joubrena (25 km) and Topolnitsa (25 km). They are of inconstant nature and run dry in summer. More important left tributaries are the rivers Valyavitsa, Goritsa, Otovitsa, Bistritsa. The Dyakovo Dam was built on the Dyakovska river .Its exploitation started in 1973. Ecxept the waters of the Dyakovska river, the waters of some tributaries of the Jerman also enter it for balance. The Dyakovo Dam has been permanently guarded since 13 Jan. 1997. A program has been prepared and approved by the District Administrator for the gradual realization of the project for the necessary equipment of the Dyakovo Dam for the purpose of changing its function and using it also as a drinking-water supply.